Thanks to Geoffrey Lane for correcting mistakes and grammar.
Project Ballantain v1.0.0
IP masquerade on a floppy.
Powered by Linux.
(C) 1998 1999 by Serge V. Storozhevykh
- Fixed the annoying bug with autodetection of 3COM509
- Added migration to hard disk - use move2hdd.bat
- Added support for multiple ISP telephone numbers.
- Fixed the problem with empty answers in configuring ISP chat
- Added support for leased line.
NOTE: This is the last, final and fixed version of Ballantain. At
this point project Ballantain is closed (except fixing errors support).
Look at the next project - FREESCO, router for networks with
static routing, up to 3 ethernet, up to 2 modems.
- What is it?
- A. Ballantain is a way to connect a small (home?) network to
the internet through one modem and give to
all users of this network transparent access to the Internet.
Ideal for small MS Windows networks.
- Q. Tell me more?
- It's linux on a single 1.44 floppy disk, made to be a router.
Optional DHCP server.
Short Answer: Linux + IP masquerade + diald + dhcpd + telnetd
- Wow! Sounds very interesting. What do I need to use it?
- First, a local net :), then a computer equipped with a modem
and an ethernet card.
Computer - not worse than a 386/8+M ram/1.44 fdd/(the rest
doesn't matter). For setting up the router you will need a
monitor and a keyboard, after that you will have a working
system you can disconnect the monitor and keyboard, sell them
and send me the money :)
Network adapter - ideals are ISA 3com509 or PCI 3com905, these
card are recognised automatically and don't require any
settings. These cards also work 3com501(not tested), 3com505(not
tested), 3com507(not tested), 3com515(not tested), ne2000
PCI(tested), cards based on the Realtec 8139 chipset(tested).
Intel EtherExpress Pro 10/100 may work. Works fine (with defined
I/O address and IRQ) cards ne2000, and most cards based on
Realtec chip, and some Intel EtherExpress cards.
Modem - I hope you know what it is. It's just a funny small box
with few colour LEDS on front panel. Criterion to choose is the
number of colour LEDs :)
HINT: If you have an old computer it's very possible you do not
have FIFO'ed com ports or even low speed, in such case the best
choice willbe an internal modem.
- How does it work?
- Well, packets from the client computer going to the internet
come to Ballantain. Ballantain realises it
and starts to make a call to the Internet
Service Provider(ISP), it makes a connection and then changes the
source IP address of these packets on its own and
sends out the packets. With reply packets
Ballantain does the reverse conversion and sends the results
to the client. After a given time (defined in config) passes after
the last packet, Ballantain will disconnect link and stays in
waiting state. This way you local network
looks to the world like one very active computer - Ballantain. And
nobody has direct access to your local computers, so your client
computers are protected.
- Hey, what about Ballantain?
- Don't worry, Ballantain is linux and linux is a much more
stable and much more protected system then MS Windows.
- You said DHCP server. Is it better then our Novell NetWare
- Just a little. If your network consists of MS windows clients
its 99% probable that you use NetBEUI or IPS/SPX protocol, but
for the internet you need the TCP/IP protocol. The DHCP server
will help you by dynamically assigning IP addresses to the
client computers. All that you need in MS windows is just to add
TCP/IP protocol and ... and... that's all. The DHCP server will
do the rest.
- Ok. I've got the file ipmasq.vXX (ipmasqf.vXX or ipmasq.zip),
- If it's in a zip archive unzip it first. Using rawrite.exe
(under DOS, MS Windows) write file ipmasq.vXX onto the floppy
disk, under linux use dd if=ipmasq.vXX of=/dev/fd0
Boot from this disk, at the prompt enter setup and press ENTER.
Since you are reading this manual there is no reason to type
Setting up system.
After boot you will see this menu:
- modem settings
- ISP settings
- Miscellaneous settings
- <bring up link> rules
- network settings
There are 3 categories of questions:
green - a must questions;
yellow - you can skip this questions and use default settings;
red - you better not touch it if you're not sure what you are doing.
1. Setting up the modem.
You will see the old modem settings, then setup will try to find
modem(s) and determine the correct com port/modem communication
speed. You will see a list of found modem(s), if the list is empty
you have a problem with the modem. Probably you are using
plug`n`play modem - which is a bad idea. Using jumpers is better,
set it on a fixed com port and irq. Or you are probably using
winmodem - kill the person who invented these winmodems, after you
get out of jail buy a normal modem.
These settings looks like -
# Modem part of diald.cong for Ballantain
# com1 - cua0, com2 - cua3 etc.
# Modem initialisation string for connect
# Yes. It's commented, but we really use it
Modem(s) found on:
/dev/cua3 at 0x2e8 (irq = 3) is a 16550A (spd_vhi)
Modem connected to /dev/cuaX. 0, 1, 2, 3. ?
Mostly your modem will be recognised and you will need to only
press ENTER to confirm the port and speed.
Max baud rate of this port. 115200, 57600, 38400, etc. ?
NOTE: if you have a low speed modem (<=14400) you better use
low speed 19200 or 38400.
Modem init string. Usually ATZ or AT&F. [ATZ]?
Hope you you know what it is.
2. ISP settings.
Again you will see the old setting except passwords of course :)
# network part of diald.conf for Ballantain
# if your ISP supplies us with dynamic IP, then:
# fake local side ppp IP addr
# fake remote side ppp IP addr
# ISP related stuff
# usually your ISP's DNS address
# login type: script, pap, chap
Does your ISP supply you with dynamic IP addr [y]?
Mostly you must just press ENTER here. !!! This setting is also
used in case of leased line router.
Dialing method and ISP phone number [T4004444]?
T - stands for tone dialing, D - for pulse dialing. You can use
as many ISP phone numbers as you need, just separate them with
DNS address [18.104.22.168]?
ISP Domain_Name_Server address.
Login type. PAP, CHAP, script. [script]?
Type of authentication. If it's a script then you must describe
the chat sequence. Let's take as an example the chat with my ISP
**** Emirates Internet ****
Script must be:
Wait for "name:" - reply "AHMED"
Wait for "assword:" - reply "PASSWORD"
Wait for ">" - reply "ppp"
after it ppp daemon will start on provider side.
!!! There is no default answer and pressing ENTER will result in
an empty string.
For a better understanding you must read the linux man pages for
the chat program. You can use the minicom program to make a call to
your provider and see what it wants and what you must answer. If you
see some garbage it probably means the ppp daemon starts
automatically and you must use PAP or CHAP authentication. In
such cases you will answer only two questions:
Login name. ?
3. Miscellaneous settings.
The only one - screen saver time:
# Misc system wide settings.
# Turn off screen after 0-60 min. 0 - never.
By default 0, it means don't use a screen saver.
4. ISP call rules..
# Rules part of diald.conf for Ballantain
accept any 600
# bring up the link for any packets for xxx sec
# or use customisable filter
Bring up link for 0-xxx sec. 0 - use filter.cfg. ?
There are 2 and millions of variants at the same time. By default
Ballantain will bring up a link for every packet that goes out and
keep a link after the last packet for 600 seconds. Sometimes it
isn't good and you can use a filter. You may want to edit the filter
file a:\etc\filter.cfg Read linux diald
manual before you try to do this.
!!! By the way, NEVER EDIT ANY Ballantain config files from DOS
or MS WINDOWS, edit them from running Ballantain using the edit
command or from linux if you have it.
Also it will be good idea to set NetBEUI or IPX/SPX as the main
protocol in windows computers and use TCP/IP only for internet.
5. Network settings.
# Network configuration. Ethernet part.
# Ethernet card I/O port addr
# Ethernet card IRQ
# dialup or leased line router
Network. 10.0.0.0, 172.22.0.0, 192.168.0.0 [10.0.0.0]?
Subnet mask. [255.0.0.0]?
Subnet mask bits. ?
IP address of this computer on local network. [10.10.10.1]?
NOTE: This address will be your gateway to internet for client's
Ethernet card I/O port address. [0x300]?
Ethernet card IRQ line. ?
Do you want DHCP server y/n [y]?
Do you want dialup or leased line router. [dialup]?
I'm not going to explain all these settings here, if you don't
understand it then you must learn TCP/IP before you try this. All I
can say - the default settings are suitable for most cases.
0. Save and exit.
Save settings and restart your router.
After rebooting, the system will be ready for use (of course if
you are lucky guy :). Boot Ballantain and watch out for warning
messages about network setting and "ethernet card not
found", etc. No messages? Wow! You are really lucky man.
Let's check the connection to your provider. Login and type command
You can see a dialing process in the 5th console, just press
<Alt F1> to switch back, <Alt F2> second console.
Assume that you are lucky again and a connection was established
and pings are going. Try to telnet to somewhere. Works? Great, my
congratulations. Most of the work has been done.
Now let's set up the clients (MS windows 95/98). If you enabled
DHCP server, everything will be easy. Open the control panel, open
network neighbourhood, and add TCP/IP protocol, restart windows. Run
winipcfg and make sure your windows computer got an IP address for
its ethernet adapter from the DHCP server. Now open an MS DOS prompt
and ping Ballantain:
ping 10.10.10.1 (or whatever its address is)
Then ping www.YOUR_ISP.com and make sure it works.
NOTE: If you are using the DHCP server it will be a good idea
never switch off Ballantain like other servers.
Manual setting of windows and other clients will be your homework
Now you can start Internet Explorer/Netscape Navigator and try to
open any site. If Ballantain was connected it will open quickly
otherwise Ballantain must first make a
connection, and probably your first try will be unsuccessful, don't
worry just type the URL again and press ENTER.
You can control diald (daemon which makes connections) with the
command control from a console or through a telnet session. Since
there is no DNS in your network telnet connection to Ballantain will
take a time, don't worry about it.
IO address and IRQ lines for plug`n`play ethernet cards are ignored
so don't worry about them (plug`n`play from point of view of linux).
- How much, where and how must I pay for Ballantain?
- It's free, just free.
- What about security?
- Maximum security from the internet side - not any services, no
any holes, strong rules for forwarding/masquerading
packets - nothing for hackers. And symbolic security from
intranet - bzip2ed passwords files. You better not give access
to the Ballantain computer to everybody, it's a normal rule for
all servers. Never give people your copy of Ballantain (your
passwords are inside, remember?), always give them a
Password are kept in bzip2ed files:
access.cfg - password for access from console and telnet for two
users: root and user.
root - of course has full rights, user -
restricted to control diald. Pre-set passwords(in distribution) -
root and user. You can/must change them with the command passwd
chat.cfg, pap.cfg - bzip2ed password for access to ISP
- Hehehe. I've just found a bug. I have
some suggestions. What to do?
- Write me
- Nice system, but I also want ftp/web/mail server, can you
- No, I can't. At the moment the system works hard in 8 MB RAM
and fits exactly in 1.44 floppy. It was designed only to be a
router and it do it perfectly. If you need something more, take
a 40 MB hard disk and install a real linux on it with all the
things you need.
- But what if it has a second ethernet interface, it will be
- Well. Project Ballantain is closed now. Look at new Project -
FREESCO, router for networks with static routing. Of course it
will be easy, and of course it will be on a single floppy disk
and even less hungry for memory - only 6 MB RAM. Supports up to
3 ethernet cards, up to 2 modems, one for dial-in and one for
dial-in/dial-out calls. Telnet/console/web administration.
Some technical info.
- Kernel - v2.0.35 + IP masquerade + FPP emulation
- Filesystems - ext2, msdos
- diald - v0.16.5
- pppd - v2.3.5
- umount - from RedHat 5.1
- Utilities - mostly from Slackware '96,'97